The charge of elements in the periodic table can be determined by looking at the groups they belong to. Group one elements have a +1 charge, while elements in groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, and 16 have a charge of +2. Elements in groups thirteen and fifteen have a charge of +3.
The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons, and the number of neutrons does not affect the charge.
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If you look at the periodic table, you will find the metals in groups (from one to 16). Group one is composed of metals that have a +1 charge, while all the metals in groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, and 16 have a charge +2. Then, metals in groups thirteen and fifteen have a charge of +3.
Periodic Table With Charges - Science Trends
Because atoms are electrically neutral, the number of positively charged protons must be equal to the number of negatively charged electrons. Since neutrons do not affect the charge, the number of neutrons is not dependent on the number of protons and will vary even among atoms of the same element.
3.4: Atomic Mass and Atomic Number - Chemistry LibreTexts