# confounding variable

## Summary

Confounding variables are extraneous variables that are related to a study's independent and dependent variables. 1 To be a confounder, a variable must meet two conditions: it must be associated with the outcome of the study, and it must be associated with the exposure of interest. 1 For example, if a study is looking at the relationship between sunburns and ice cream consumption, a confounder could be the temperature outside, as it is associated with both sunburns and ice cream consumption.

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## Summaries from the best pages on the web

Summary Confounding variables (a.k.a. confounders or confounding factors) are a type of extraneous variable that are related to a study’s independent and dependent variables . A variable must meet two conditions to be a confounder: You collect data on sunburns and ice cream consumption. You find that higher ice cream
Confounding Variables | Definition, Examples & Controls
scribbr.com

Definition for confounding variable in plain English. How to Reduce Confounding Variables. Hundreds of step by step statistics videos and articles.
Confounding Variable: Simple Definition and Example - Statistics How To
statisticshowto.com

In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor, extraneous determinant or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable, causing a spurious association. Confounding is a causal concept, and as such, cannot be described in terms of correlations or associations.[1][2][3] The existence of confounders is an important quantitative explanation why correlation does not imply causation.
Confounding - Wikipedia
wikipedia.org

Confounding Variable Confounding variables influencing outcome included initial severity of the patient's condition, research site differences, and the ...
Confounding Variable - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
sciencedirect.com

Confounding variables A confounding variable is a variable, other than the independent variable that you're interested in, that may affect the dependent ...
Confounding variables - Handbook of Biological Statistics
biostathandbook.com

Home > Examples > Science Examples > Confounding Variable Examples A confounding variable is an outside influence that changes the effect of a dependent and ...
Confounding Variable Examples
softschools.com

But if you’re confounded by the idea of a confound, then this post may help you to see the light. A somewhat formal definition of a confounding variable is ...
What is a confounding variable? — Psychology In Action
psychologyinaction.org

What is a Confounding Variable? By Julia Simkus , published Jan 24, 2022
Confounding Variables | Examples, Types, Controls - Simply Psychology
simplypsychology.org

Confounding variables (aka third variables) are variables that the researcher failed to control, or eliminate, damaging the internal validity of an experiment.
Confounding Variable / Third Variable
explorable.com

Confounder (or Confounding variable) is one of those statistical term that confuses a lot of people. Not because it represents a confusing concept, but because ...
Confusing Statistical Terms #11: Confounder
theanalysisfactor.com

This tutorial provides an explanation of confounding variables, including a formal definition and several examples.
What is a Confounding Variable? (Definition & Example)
statology.org